Classification Of Electronic Components
1 . By manufacturing industry – components and devices
The classification of components and devices is distinguished according to whether the manufacturing process of components changes the molecular composition and structure of the material, which is the concept of industry division.
In the electronic components industry, devices are manufactured by semiconductor companies, while electronic parts companies manufacture components.
Components: products whose molecular composition and structure are not changed during processing. Examples include resistors, capacitors, inductors, potentiometers, transformers, connectors, switches, quartz/ceramic components, relays, etc.
Devices: Products whose molecular composition and structure change during processing, mainly various semiconductor products. For example, diodes, triodes, field-effect tubes, various optoelectronic devices, various integrated circuits, etc., electric vacuum devices, liquid crystal displays, etc.
2. By circuit function – discrete and integrated
Discrete devices: independent devices with a certain voltage and current relationship, including basic reactance components, electromechanical components, discrete semiconductor devices (diodes, bipolar triodes, field-effect tubes, thyristors), etc.
Integrated devices: often called integrated circuits, refer to a completely functional circuit or system using integrated manufacturing technology to produce a package composed of devices with specific circuit functions and technical parameters indicators.
The essential difference between discrete and integrated devices is that discrete devices only have a simple voltage and current conversion or control function without the system function of the circuit. In contrast, integrated devices can form a completely independent circuit or system function.
The integrated circuit with system function is not simply a “device” and “circuit” but a complete product, such as a digital TV system, which has all the circuits integrated into a chip, customarily still called the integrated circuit.
3. By working mechanism – passive and active
Passive and active components, also known as passive and active devices, are divided according to the working mechanism of the components, generally used in the discussion of circuit principles.
Passive components: Components that work by consuming only the electrical energy of the component’s input signal and do not require a power source themselves for signal processing and transmission. Passive components include resistors, potentiometers, capacitors, inductors, diodes, etc.
Active components: the basic condition for normal operation is that the corresponding power supply must be provided to the components. Without power, the device will not work. Active components include transistors, field-effect tubes, integrated circuits, etc., composed of semiconductors as the basic material, including electric vacuum components.
4. According to the assembly method division – cartridge and mount
Before surface assembly machine technology appears, all components are assembled on the circuit board by insertion. Surface assembly technology is increasingly widely used in modern times. Most components have cartridges and mount two kinds of package; part of the new components have been eliminated cartridge package.
Cartridge: assembled to the printed board when you need to punch through holes in the printed board, the pins in the other side of the board to achieve solder connection components usually have a longer pin and volume.
Mounting: assembled to the printed board without punching through holes on the printed board, lead directly mounted on the copper foil of the printed board components, usually short pins or no pins chip structure.
5. According to the use of environmental classification – component reliability
There are a wide variety of circuit components; with the continuous improvement of electronic technology and process level, a large number of new devices continue to appear for different use environments; the same device also has different reliability standards, and the different corresponding reliability has different prices, for example, the same device military prices may be ten times the civilian, or even more, industrial goods between the two.
Civilian goods: general reliability and high-cost performance requirements for the home, entertainment, office, and other areas.
Industrial goods: industrial control, transportation, instrumentation, etc., with high reliability and average cost performance requirements.
Military products: military, aerospace, medical and other fields with high-reliability requirements and insensitive prices.
These are the five classification methods of electronic components.